Hispanic-Americans

I. Overview & Analysis
Purpose
The problem that Hispanic-Americans faced was prejudice because they were not white and did not obey the rules of the whites.The Hispanic-Americans faced discrimination in jobs and homes because they had different views of work. The Mexicans didn't have political representation because they were from a different country and came in illegally. Some of the organizations that were formed by Hispanic-Americans were:
1. The United Farm Workers was an organization created by Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta. They launched a boycott aganist california's fruit and vegetable farmer due to long hours, little pay and bad condition (Danzer, 761-2).
2. The Brown Berets organized the school walk outs and demanded smaller classes, more Hispanic teachers and administration, and a program to reduce the dropout rates of Latinos. David Sanchez was the leader of the Brown Berets (762).
3. The MAPA (Mexican American Political Association) helped sponsor Hispanic candidates for legislaton to benefit for the Latino community. The MAPA organization helped Edward Roybal to become the second Mexican American congressman (762).
4. La Raza Unida was created by Texan Jose Angel Guiterrez. This group tried to create an independent for the Latino political movement. La Raza Unida won positions on the school board, city councils, and several races for mayor (762).
5. The Federal Alliance of land Grants was founded by Reies Tijerina. He tried to help the Mexicans take back the land the U.S.took from them in the Mexican-American War during the 19th century (763).
6. A former Democratic Party official, named Rodolfo Gonzales, formed the Crusade for Justice in Denver,Colorado during the mid-1960s. The Crusade for Justice was created to help support high school strikes, to defend against the brutal attacks from law enforcement, and cases that the police framed at the Latinos. They formed Chicano youth liberation conferences. These conferences brought many young Mexican-Americans form different parts of the country and also brought help from the Puerto Ricans.
The overall goals were realistic because they were trying to achieve equal rights. As the result of all of the organizations, they got more rights and more equality for their race.

Methods
The methods they used to achieve their goals were non-violent protests and boycotts. For example, the United Farm Workers Alliance boycotts grape companies nationwide. The students also did a walkout at school to show that they were serious and wanted equality in school. They also organized politically in order to have Latino issues be heard and to have voice and candidates in Congress.

Overall, they accomplished their goals because the farm workers got higher wages among other benefits. The schools also established student programs for Mexican-Americans in colleges and universities. As a result, two members, Henry Gonzalez and Edward Roybal, made it into the House of Representatives (Danzer 760-763).

Outcomes
Mexican Americans recieved recognition in farm unions helping them get higher wages and better working conditions. They had representation in the government as high officials, such as Henry Gonzalez and Edward Roybal, who served in the House of Representatives, who tried to create an independent political movement for Latinos (760-763).

II. Voices from the movement
Video
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=735B4E25-3BC1-4A47-9EC9-B06C47A78318
Cesar Chavez. Prod. Ambrose Video Publishing. Ambrose Video Publishing, 2006. Discovery Education. Web. 14 March 2012. <http://www.discoveryeducation.com/>.
This video explains the rise to the Hispanic-Americans movement and who started it all. It shows there parties and leaders who kept it togther. Explains there methods on how they protested and gained there civil rights, also how Hispanic-Americans are now today in the 21st century.This video is the most simplimatic in explaining the Hispanic-American movements.

http://youtu.be/CgoocXnBbW8
PBS. Weblog post. Chicano! PBS Doucmentary - Taking Back the Schools: Video 2 of 4. Youtube, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgoocXnBbW8&feature=youtu.be.
This video explains the youth of Hispanic-Americans in schools. It shows how the youth struggled and fought for there rights in the Chicano movement. Also how they were treated during these movements. Explains what the students wanted and there demands. This video has the most eye witness interviews.
Photo Montage
Bracero
Bracero

http://www.humanities.uci.edu/fvc/schedS10_05_harvest.html
  • This demonstrates the kind of work that Chicanos had to do. These Hispanic-Americans are shown during harvest season. They worked long hours but still could not earn the respect that they deserved from White Americans.
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http://library.colostate-pueblo.edu/about/departments/archives/scehada.html
  • "Accept me for what I am: Chicano", this photo illustrates two young girls who are trying to show spectators that the girls dont care what other people think. These girls want to be accepted for being who they are, proud Chicanos.

external image image006.gif
  • This picture shows how Hispanic-Americans were treated. That many of them were looked down upon in the American society. They were treated as if they were different people, so they were segregated. This is part of the reason why the Hispanic-American movement was started. This picture shows best how Hispanic-Americans were segregated in America.

http://immigrationmexicanamerican.blogspot.com/2009/03/living-through-civil-rights-movement-is.html



Poem/Music & Lyrics/Visual Art
United Farm Workers activists during a boycott of Safeway
United Farm Workers activists during a boycott of Safeway

http://www.lokashakti.org/dev/encyclopedia/groups/147-united-farm-workers
This shows the disturbance that was caused during the Chicano movement.Here we see a group of 12 Hispanic-Americans as they practice a non-violent protest. Some would hold up signs saying "Huelga" meaning "strike". Others would try to appeal to the English speaking by holding up signs in english telling people to boycott certain company brands. Here we see the boycott of the Safeway brand, with protestors saying that if you buy from Safeway then you are being cheated.

external image Domingo-Ulloa-Braceros-1960s-640x454.jpg
http://notesonlooking.com/?p=9286
This picture represents the Mexican workers who refused to work in grape fields. These Mexican-American workers formed into a group, led by Cesar Chavez, called the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee. In 1965, Cesar Chavez led a nationwide boycott of a California company's grapes. This type of protest agreed with that of Martin Luther King Jr., in the sense that they both believed in nonviolence.

Primary Documents
The United Farm Workers is Born
Cesar was willing to sacrifice his own life so that the union would continue and that violence was not used. Cesar fasted many times. In 1968 Cesar went on a water only, 25 day fast. He repeated the fast in 1972 for 24 days, and again in 1988, this time for 36 days. What motivated him to do this? He said, Farm workers everywhere are angry and worried that we cannot win without violence. We have proved it before through persistence, hard work, faith and willingness to sacrifice. We can win and keep our own self-respect and build a great union that will secure the spirit of all people if we do it through a rededication and recommitment to the struggle for justice through nonviolence (The United Farm Workers is born).

This passage from the UFW official web page shows what this movement meant to one of the leaders, the late Cesar Chavez. Chavez put his life because he wanted to try to get a reaction. Chavez, like Martin Luther King Jr., believed in non-violent protests. Chavez showed multiple times that he was willing to go to extensive measures in order to produce the results that he wanted. His long period fasts are good examples of his willingness, as he would go for over three weeks with only water. The Chicano movement meant a great deal to the Hispanic-American society.

History of the Brown Berets
On March 1, 1968, the Brown Berets planned and participated in the East L.A. �walk outs� or �blow outs�, the largest and lengthiest in the history of California, in which thousands of students left their classrooms to join the protest for quality education. The Brown Berets were able to unite college and high school students and begin a new stage in the Chicano/a movement. Shortly, after this event, other Chicano students led �walk outs� all over the Southwest.

The Brown Berets were a group of Chicanos who wanted to get a higher level of education that of what was being offered to them. In order to protest they organized walkout. During these walkouts, they would literally walk out of their schools. This group felt that they were being discriminated against since they weren't given the educational level that they felt that they deserved. This was another form of nonviolent protest that was being practiced often throughout this movement.

III. Conclusion
  • The current problems Hispanic-Americans are facing today are that they are mostly at the bottom of the economy.
Currently most hispanics are doing low- paying service jobs because immigrants that come to the United States
have low education and low english speaking skills. A major problem for Hispanic-Americans are failure to complete High
School, with low education Hispanic-Americans are ill-equipped to compete for high paying jobs in an economy ran by technology.
With low english speaking skills hispanic-americans lose an important key in success in the job market,higher learning,
and everyday activities.

  • Yes, Hispanic-Americans are making much progress 60 years later. Although many Hispanic-Americans are considered in the low-class, or middle- class of society they are still climbing and trying hard to reach the top. Alot of the United States population with Hispanic-Americans are growing. Today's Hispanic-American generation have lower poverty rates, are hard workers, more education, support there own families, and are more successful.

  • During the 1960s and 70s, The Chicano movement not only had the movement for civil rights, but they also had a literacy movement. Half a century later, Mexican-Americans still continue to struggle with the world today. Benjamin Saenz, who is the chair of the Department of Creative Writing, says that many of the young people of the movement became doctors, lawyers, teachers, and writers. Many Mexican-Americans use the online community to spread their beliefs and help those in need.

  • Some of the groups like the National Council of La Raza continued to lead in the Chicano Movement. The National Council of La Raza, originally called the Southwest Council of La Raza, helped to support other organizations and promoting registrations to vote or developing leadership. Under Raul Yzaguirre’s leadership, who is the director of the National Council of La Raza, they had more funding from the Ford Foundation. Today, the National Council of La Raza still continues to help Mexican-Americans all over the world to keep a better community for all Mexican-Americans.
Reference
Danzer, Gerald A., et al. The Americans Reconstruction through the 20th Century. Evanston: McDougal Littel, 1999. Print.
Cesar Chavez. Prod. Ambrose Video Publishing. Ambrose Video Publishing, 2006. Discovery Education. Web. 14 March 2012. <http://www.discoveryeducation.com/>.
Pollack, Andrew, ed. “The Struggle for Chicano Liberation.” The Struggle for Chicano Liberation. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. [[http://www.marxists.org/‌history/‌etol/‌document/‌swp-us/‌chicanlib2.htm]].
PBS. Weblog post. Chicano! PBS Doucmentary - Taking Back the Schools: Video 2 of 4. Youtube, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=CgoocXnBbW8&feature=youtu.be>.
"The Story of Cesar Chavez" UFW: The Official Web Page of the United Farm Workers of America.2006. 15 Mar. 2012. <
http://ufw.org/_page.php?menu=research&inc=history/07.html>
Vines, Vanee. "Hispanics in America." Editorial. INFOCUS. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Cancer Institute, Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institute of Mental Health, and National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; National Center for Health Statistics; U.S. Census Bureau; Andrew W. Mellon Foundation; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; California HealthCare Foundation; and the California Endowment. , n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2012.
http://www.infocusmagazine.org/6.2/bsoc_hispanics_in_america.html.
Chavez, Linda. "Hispanics pursue the American Dream - Life in America."
Editorial. Buisness Library. Gale Group, 2007. Web. 15 Mar. 2012.
<http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_n2626_v125/ai_19622628/pg_2/
?tag=content;col1>.
Guerrero, Salvador. “The Chicano Movement, Alive and Evolving.” Borderzine Journalism across Fronteras. UTEP, Knight Foundation, Scripps Howard Foundation, 28 Jan. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. <http://borderzine.com/‌2011/‌01/‌the-chicano-movement-alive-and-evolving/>.
“History.” NCLR. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. [[http://www.nclr.org/‌index.php/‌about_us/‌history/‌formation_of_the_southwest_council_of_la_raza/]].
Watsonville Brown Berets.15 March 2012 <
http://brownberets.info/about>